Day 2 :
- Impacts of Nanotechnology
Occupational Disease and Hazards
Infectious Disease and Epidemiology>
Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
Time : 09:30 - 09 : 50
Sergey Zakharov has completed his PhD and postdoctoral studies from Charles University in Prague, 3rd School of Medicine. He is the Head of the Czech Toxicological Information Center of General University Hospital and 1st School of Medicine of Charles University in Prague.
A prospective study of long-term visual (VS) and nervous sequelae (NS) in 50 patients 4-8 months after confirmed methyl alcohol intoxication was conducted. Examination included standard ophthalmic tests, optical coherence tomography with retinal nerve fibers layer estimation (RNFL), visual evoked potentials (VEP), neurological and neuropsychological examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electromyography (EMG). 41 males and 9 females, median age 48 (23-73) were examined. Median serum methanol on admission was 939 mg/L (85-7307), formate 578 mg/L (0-1400), pH 7.25 (6.69-7.46). VS were diagnosed in 44% patients based on both pathologic RNFL and VEP results, and involved pathologic contrast sensitivity, colour vision, perimetry and fundoscopy. Only 55% of them had VS diagnosed at discharge from hospitals. Patients with impaired RNFL had pathologic VEP, too (p=0.011). 68% patients with VS had MRI findings on basal ganglia (p<0.001). CNS lesions on MRI were present in 40% cases, mainly symmetrical necrosis of putamen and globus pallidus, but no clinical symptoms of Parkinsonism were observed. Cognitive deficit of frontal type was present significantly more often in the methanol-exposed group than in the controls. Peripheral polyneuropathy was diagnosed in 30% cases (10% had diabetes type 2, 2% had occupational exposure to vibrations). Patients with VS differed in pH, HCO3-, anion gap, base deficit on admission (all p<0.01). No association of long-term health sequelae was found with the type of antidote applied (p=0.073), folate substitution (p=0.838), or mode of hemodialysis (p=0.672). However, ethanol administration for first aid before diagnosis confirmation (p=0.0097) negatively correlated with VS.
University of Mons, Belgium
Time : 09:50 - 10:10
Christophe Caucheteur received the MS degree in Electrical Engineering in 2003 from the Faculté Polytechnique de Mons, Belgium. He was awarded the PhD degree in Applied Sciences in 2007 from the same university for his research focusing on the realization of mechanical and chemical sensors based on the use of fiber Bragg gratings. He is co-author of 5 book chapters and more than 140 papers in international journals and conference proceedings. He is also co-author of 5 international patents regarding the development of fiber Bragg gratings sensors. He is recipient of an ERC (European Research Council) Starting Grant.
An optical fiber is a 125 μm cylindrical waveguide of light made of two concentric layers of silica. It is an excellent support for miniaturized sensors, allowing remote operation in very small volumes. In potentially explosive atmospheres, sensors based on optical fibers offer a set of advantages without equivalent for well-established technologies. They are indeed immune to electromagnetic interferences and present a good resistance to high temperatures and to chemical corrosion. Their small dimensions combined with their light weight and flexibility allows embedding them directly in the structures to monitor without affecting their mechanical resistance. Last but not least, depending on the interrogation technique that is set up, optical fibers yield distributed (sensing all along the fiber length) or quasi-distributed (sensing at different points cascaded along the fiber length) measurements that can be remotely addressed. In this presentation, the focus will be made on applications in road tunnels and undercroft car parks monitoring. These closed and wide spaces present issues in terms of air quality control (CO and NOx), fire detection and combustible gas leak detection. Classically, to insure the safety level, a sufficient number of detectors are installed to cover the entire area, which is generally expensive. Optical fibers bring an elegant solution as they ensure all functions (sensing, addressing and data transfer). After a brief introduction to the technology, this presentation will focus on optical fiber sensor solutions developed for air quality monitoring, in particular NO2, flaming fire detection and combustible gas leak detection (methane and hydrogen).
Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
Title: Increased markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath of workers exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles
Time : 10:10 - 10:30
Pelclova Daniela, MD, PhD is Professor and has been working since 1995 as a Head of Department of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology at 1st Faculty of Medicine of the Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague. She is a Fellow of Collegium Ramazzini
The potential adverse health effects of nanoparticles are very little understood, nevertheless, nano-TiO2 have been increasingly commercially manufactured for use in medical, cosmetic, and industrial applications. Experimental studies suggest that these particles can be distributed in the important organs and may induce body damage for biological systems. No biological exposure tests have been identified to monitor workers´ exposure. In the year 2012 and 2013, the spatial distributions of total particle number and mass concentrations were determined in the workplace air in TiO2 production plant using particle number concentration monitor (P-TRAK) and monitor of particle mass concentrations (DustTRAK DRX). Particle number size distributions were monitored by aerosol spectrometers SMPS and APS, covering the overall size range 15 nm-10 μm. In 2012, both pre-shift and post-shift samples of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were collected in 20 workers (mean age 34 years) and 19 controls (35 years). In 2013, post-shift samples were harvested in 14 workers (34 years) and 25 controls (34 years). Malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-trans-nonenale (HNE), 4-hydroxy-trans-hexenale (HHE), C6-C12, 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG), 5-hydroxymethyl uracil (5-OHMeU), o-tyrosine (o-Tyr), 3-chloro-tyrosine (3-Cl-Tyr), nitro tyrosine (NO-Tyr), and leukotriene’s (LTs) were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. In addition, Ti concentration was measured in EBC by X-ray diffraction method. Total aerosol concentrations in the production plant varied greatly in both space and time; median number concentrations were 38,000 and 14,900 particles/cm3 and mass concentrations 1.9 and 0.9 mg/m3 in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the workshops, 70% of the particles were smaller than 100 nm in diameter. The pre-shift and both post-shift EBC markers of oxidative stress were significantly higher in the workers then controls, in addition LTB4 was increased. All markers of lipid oxidation were elevated (p<0.001): MDA, HNE, HHE, C6-C12, and 8-isoprostane. Also all markers of oxidation of nucleic acids and proteins: 8-OHdG, 8-OHG, 5-OHMeU, 3-Cl-Tyr, NO-Tyr, o-Tyr; and LTB4 (p<0.001). The elevation of cysteinyl LTs was lower. Mean Ti in EBC of workers was 20.05 ng/ml. In the controls, it was under the detection limit. Conclusions: This 2 years´ study in workers suggests adverse effects of exposure to TiO2 aerosol containing a high proportion of Nano-sized fractions. To our knowledge, this is the first study of this kind. Markers of oxidative stress in the EBC appear a suitable non-invasive method to monitor exposure to Nano TiO2 in the preventive examinations of the workers.
National University of Ireland, Galway
Time : 10:45 - 11:05
Laura has just completed a bachelor degree in Occupational Therapy at the National University of Ireland, Galway where she received first class honours. As part of her degree specifications Laura has carried out a qualitative study investigating the impact of a farming accident on a farmer from an occupational therapy perspective. This is the first research of its kind from an Irish context and Laura hopes to pursue a PhD in this area of farming accidents and occupational therapy input.
Background: Farm injuries account for a large percentage of work place injuries in Ireland annually. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived changes in occupational identity, competence and the environment following a farm related injury. Method: A qualitative research design adopting a phenomenological approach was used to guide the study. The occupational performance history interview (OPHI-II) was used to derive the narrative from participants. Six farmers who had experienced a farm accident were selected from two recruitment sources. The purposive sampling technique 'maximum variation' was used to select participants. Thematic analysis was used to analyses the data and resulted in the identification of five themes. Conclusions: There are implications for public policy related to an urgent need for financial, informational and rehabilitative supports for farmers living and working with permanent disabilities arising from farm accidents.
Al Jouf University, Saudi Arabia
Title: Knowledge, attitudes and practice of medical students regarding infectious occupational risks of hepatitis B virus in College of Medicine
Time : 11:05 - 11:25
Ahmad Homoud Al-Hazmi did MBBS from King Saud University, Master’s degree in primary health care from King Saud University (college of medicine- 1999) and diploma in the e-learning from (Busan, Seoul) South Korea. He has attended many national & international conferences. He has numerous publications in medical journals and has presented many posters and orals in various national and international conferences. He has been an international speaker and visited many countries including USA, China, Singapore, Malaysia etc
Background/Aim: Medical students represent a population that is at a high-risk group for acquiring and spreading hepatitis B infection (HBV). Aim: This study was designed to evaluate knowledge base, attitudes and practice of medical students regarding occupational risks of HBV infection. Subjects and Methods: During March 2013, a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on medical students of AlJouf University College of Medicine. Structured questionnaires of 16 different statements concerning knowledge base of HBV, attitudes as well as practices towards occupational risks of hepatitis B were distributed to 120 students. Results: Response rate of 76.7% yielded 92 questionnaires for analysis. Majority of the students surveyed 57 (62.0%) perceived that they are at high risk of contracting and spreading HBV. The rate of this perception among students who had history of training on universal precautions was more than that found among those who did not have (70.8% vs. 58.8%; P=0.025). Most of the students surveyed 58 (63.0%) considered vaccine is safe and more than half 48 (52.2%) were vaccinated against HBV. There were a very strong agreement about needlestick (n=85; 92.4 %) and blood (n=80; 87.0%) as an efficient modes of HBV transmission. Seventy two percent of the participants did not have any knowledge about post exposure prophylaxis for hepatitis B. A significant relationship was found between students who had history of training on universal precautions and knowledge about post needlestick injury (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Infectious occupational risk of hepatitis B remains challenge for medical students and the foundations of the medical institutes. Students must complete an infection control training before they start their clinical education.
Virginia Tech Transportation Institute, Blacksburg, VA
Time : 11:25 - 11:45
Richard J Hanowski is a Senior Research Scientist and serves as the Director of the Center for Truck & Bus Safety (CTBS) at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute. He has been involved in transportation research since 1991, and has led many light vehicle and heavy vehicle safety studies for government and industry. He has servedrnas the Principal or Co-Principal Investigator on over $50 million of contract research and has authored over 200 publications. His research focuses on safety and health issues associated with commercial vehicle operations. Findings from his research have generated practical, in-depth knowledge that has benefited government, commercial vehicle operations (including drivers and fleet management), equipment manufacturers, academia, and the public. His 2009 research on driver distraction in commercial vehicle operations helped foster an international dialogue that led to policies and regulations designed to reduce driver distraction and improve safety.
Introduction: Given the distributed operations in long-haul trucking, limited access to healthy food options, and sedentary lifestyle, the prevalence of obesity among commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers is reported to be as high as 70 percent (Smith, 2011). Obesity is a primary risk factor for many chronic conditions, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is estimated to affect approximately one in four CMV drivers in the United States (Pack, 2002). Beyond the health-related complications of obesity and OSA, work performance and healthcare costs are also affected by these diseases (Schulte, 2007; Schmier, 2006; Engleman, 2004). Additionally, both obesity and OSA are associated with greater crash risk in CMV drivers (Anderson, 2012; Pack, 2002).Worksite health interventions are ideal for CMV drivers due to the nature of the industry (i.e., long work hours and extended time spent at carrier terminals). A leading trucking organization, Schneider National Inc. (SNI), has initiated a sleep disorder program with a commercial OSA provider, Precision Pulmonary Diagnostics (PPD),to address this prevalent disorder within the industry. Purpose: Detail Schneider National Inc.’s (SNI) OSA Program and evaluate the opinions, perceptions, and program satisfaction. Methods: Phone interviews were conducted with key SNI and PPD personnel to examine and detail the OSA program. Focus groups were conducted with 13 participants (n=8 drivers and n=5 staff) to determine their opinions, perceptions, and satisfaction with the OSA program. Results: Overall, 88% of drivers expressed satisfaction with participating in SNI’s OSA program. Drivers reported benefits of the program that included: improved sleep quality, increased energy, feeling well rested, improved health, and less worry about falling asleep while driving. Driver-reported drawbacks of the program included: discomfort while sleeping with the positive airway pressure (PAP) device, mask discomfort, and complaints about home PAP use and PAP cleaning and maintenance. Overall, OSA program personnel believed their program was successful and were eager to continue refining and improving it. OSA program personnel cited several supports that aided in implementing and maintaining the OSA programs including a supportive team that prioritized roadway safety and driver health, and effective compliance monitoring accompanied by consistent follow-up with drivers. Staff reported challenges encountered when implementing and maintaining the OSA programs including gaining driver acceptance and significant time delays between screening and testing drivers for OSA due to the high volume of at-risk drivers. Staff also noted logistical challenges inherent to the trucking industry and the mobile workforce of drivers, as well as collecting and organizing PAP compliance data due to the volume of data received. Conclusions: Corporate sleep disorder programs and interventions are only a piece in the larger promotion of health and wellness on the road with CMV drivers; however, an important first step is to educate drivers on sleep disorders, specifically OSA, and empowering them to make positive steps toward healthy living. Providing OSA screening, testing, treatment, and monitoring for SNI drivers demonstrates the carrier’s commitment to driver health and roadway safety.
University of Saudi Arabia, KSA
Title: Laboratory health care workers are at a high risk due to infectious occupational risks of Brucella
Time : 11:45 - 12:05
Meshref A Al-Ruwaili is an Associate Professor in Al-Jouf University, and Member of American Society for Microbiology and Saudi Society for Food and Nutrition. He has published 22 scientific papers in various journals.
Brucellosis is a bacterial disease of animals (zoonosis) that under certain circumstances can be transmitted to humans. Brucella spp. particularly B. melitensis, B. abortus, and B. suis represent a significant public health concern in many countries worldwide. It is well documented that brucellosis has been associated with laboratory-acquired infections. However, Saudi Arabia is hyperendemic for brucellosis, with more than 8000 cases reported each year to public health authorities. This highlights the need to maintain the preventive measures amongst laboratory workers against infectious occupational risks of brucellosis. The important means of prevention include careful wound dressing, use of protective measures like wearing glasses, wearing of disposal medical gloves and clothing. Laboratory workers should be educated about transmission routes, risks and prevention of laboratory-acquired infection when first recruited for work and periodically afterwards. Increased adherence to personal protective equipment and use of biosafety cabinet should be priority targets to prevent laboratory-acquired infection like brucellosis. Work is ongoing to find an effective vaccine for humans. There is controversy about the effectiveness of post exposure antimicrobial prophylaxis.
Dr. Fred Yaw Bio was born in Kumasi, Ghana to Opanin Yaw Bio and Maame Akua Bramuo. He had his General Certificate of Educational Ordinary Level Education at Osei Kyeretwie Secondary School in Kumasi from 1969 to 1974 and his Advanced Level education at Prempeh College in Kumasi from 1974 to 1976. He entered the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi in 1976 and obtained a Bachelor of Science (Human Biology) degree in 1980 and Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery in 1983. He had his internship training at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi from 1983 to 1984, and then as a Medical Officer till 1985 when he moved to the Suntresu Urban Health Centre (now Suntresu Hospital) as a Medical Officer. He joined the Prestea Goldfields Limited in 1987, as the second doctor of the mine’s one hundred bed hospital and was promoted to a senior medical officer in 1990. He was at the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health in Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1990 for his Certificate in Toxicology In 1992, he became the senior medical officer solely in charge of the Prestea Goldfields Health Services. He was appointed a Senior Medical Officer in the KNUST Hospital in 1995. In 1998, he went to study at The University of Leeds, UK, for his Master of Public Health (MPH) and then to The University of Birmingham, UK, from 1999-2003 for a PhD in Occupational Health. He was appointed Director of the University Health Services in October 2005 and an Adjunct Associate Professor at the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey (UMDNJ), USA in June 2011. He is also on part-time at the Department of Community Health, School of Medical Sciences, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana Dr Yaw Bio is a Consultant Public/Occupational Health Physician, a member of the Ghana Medical Association (GMA) and the international Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and a Fellow of the Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons.
Introduction: The prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension are important epidemiological research topics worldwide. This study was conducted as part of assessment of the general well being of the staff of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Kumasi, Ghana to determine the prevalence of hypertension. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, the blood pressure (BP) of members of staff was measured with the University sphygmo manometer. BP readings 140/90 mm Hg or higher was considered as hypertensive BP, whilst a systolic reading of 140 mm Hg with a lower diastolic reading (≤90 mm Hg) and vice versa were considered as isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) or isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) respectively. Analysis of data was by SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 2057 members of staff of KNUST were studied. Of these, 36.9% were found to have hypertension, Isolated Diastolic Hypertension (IDH) or Isolated Systolic Hypertension (ISH). The highest prevalence of abnormal blood pressures was found among senior members (43%) followed by senior staffs (37.5%) and junior staff making up 26%. Males were more likely to have higher blood pressures than females of comparable age groups. The age group 41-50 years had the highest number of abnormal blood pressures in all three staff categories. Discussion: This study provides first hand information on the groups that need to be targeted and given further medical attention in a follow-up. Social status does contribute to the risk of hypertension, although everyone is at risk. The improvement of the management of hypertension should decrease the cardiovascular risk in the hypertensive population.